National Energy Balance of Bangladesh for FY 2021-22 (preliminary)

1. Overview (preliminary)

The total energy supply (TES) to the country is 55,020 ktoe while the final energy consumption (FEC) is 40,193 ktoe. Non-energy consumption was 1,522 ktoe, and the statistical difference was 4,897 ktoe (implying the lack of comprehensive data at this preliminary stage analysis). Transformation loss, energy industry own use, with the transmission and distribution loss altogether accounted for 8,408 ktoe. Bangladesh’s FEC / TES ratio for FY 2021-22 is 0.73.

Bangladesh’s national energy balance structure can be categorised by (i) dominance of its indigenous natural gas, with rapidly increasing portion of imported LNG (import started from FY2018-19), (ii) significant importance of biofuels, and (iii) large dependency on captive power generation (auto producers). These characteristics of the national energy balance structure of Bangladesh can be visualised in the form of the energy balance table figure as shown below:

2. Total Energy Supply (TES) (preliminary)

The total energy supply (TES) of 55,020 ktoe is composed of 25,687 ktoe of natural gas, and 14,300 ktoe of biofuels as the major energy products. The biofuel is the fuelwood mostly supplied to residential sector for cooking and heating purposes, where city gas is not made available. Domestic production of energy comprises 34,660 ktoe. This domestic production among the TES is also mostly composed of natural gas and biofuel. Imports are 20,757 ktoe. Breakdown of imports by energy products in the order of importance are; 9,679 ktoe of petroleum products, 5,707 ktoe of natural gas (LNG import), 3,064 ktoe of coal, 1,644 ktoe of crude oil, and 663 ktoe of electricity.

Self-sufficiency rate (domestic production / total energy supply) of Bangladesh’s TES is 63%, which is calculated from the sum of the indigenous supply of 34,660 ktoe, among the TES of 55,020 ktoe.

Total Energy Supply (TES) (all) FY 2021-22 unit: ktoe
Total Energy Supply (TES) (domestic) FY 2021-22 unit: ktoe

Biofuel comprising 26% of the total energy supply is a significant contributor to Bangladesh’s energy, however, it is an energy product which is neither regulated nor reported. It is also for this reason that the credibility of the biofuel data is not endorsed.

With the aim to identify the trends and efficiency of the controllable energy products utilisation, the analysis hereon are conducted under two setups: one setup being [a] all energy products, and another setup, by [b] excluding biofuel from the national energy balance table.

3. Final Energy Consumption (FEC) by Segment (preliminary)

With respect to the importance of the primary energy basis final energy consumption analysis, the segment breakdown charts (by sector and energy products) have been prepared. Segment breakdown chart for all energy product is on the left, while the segment breakdown chart excluding biofuel is on the right. Focusing on mostly fossil fuel derived energy (i.e., excluding biofuels), it is observed that the industry sector electricity consumption, together with the residential sector electricity consumption are the large sector-product segments. As the consequence, energy efficiency and conservation potentials are most likely to be significant in these two segments.

Primary Energy Basis Final Energy Consumption (FEC) Segment Breakdown Chart by Sector-product segment ([a] all energy products) FY 2020-22 (preliminary) unit: ktoe
Primary Energy Basis Final Energy Consumption (FEC) Segment Breakdown Chart by Sector-product segment ([b] excluding biofuels) FY 2021-22 (preliminary) unit: ktoe

4. National Energy Intensity (preliminary)

Energy intensity is measured by the quantity of energy required per unit output or activity, so that using less energy to produce a product reduces the intensity. (US DOE definition). National energy intensity of Bangladesh is calculated with the total energy supply (or final energy consumption) divided by constant gross domestic product (GDP) for the fiscal year. The constant market price GDP used is the FY 2015-16 price data in BDT.

Two kinds of national energy intensity are calculated for Bangladesh. One is the total energy supply divided by GDP (=TES/GDP) which is commonly employed as the national indicator internationally, and the other is the final energy consumption divided by GDP (=FEC/GDP) which may better reflect the energy efficiency of the activities conducted within the country.

For FY 2021-22 (FY 2015-16 price in BDT), TES/GDP is 1.81 [ktoe / BDT billion], while FEC/GDP is 1.32 [ktoe / BDT billion].

Explanatory notes for the national energy balance table calorific matrix can be found here.

[Explanatory Notes FY 2021-22]